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50 Years of Liberation of West Irian 2013

Date of Issuance: 1 May 2013

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Operations Trikora (Tri Komando Rakyat), also called West Irian Liberation, is 2 years conflict waged Indonesia to merge western Irian region. On 19 December 1961, Soekarno (President of Indonesia) announced the implementation of TRIKORA in North Square of Yogyakarta. Soekarno also established Mandala Command. Major General Soeharto was appointed as commander. This command task is to plan, prepare, and conduct military operations to merge Western Irian to Indonesia. When Indonesia proclaimed its Independence on August 17, 1945, Indonesia has claimed throughout the Dutch East Indies, including western region of Irian Island. The Dutch believed the region was still a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. But the Indonesian government opposed, so that West Irian became a contested area between Indonesia and the Netherlands. It is when discussed in several meetings and in various international forums. In the 1949 Round Table Conference, the Netherlands and Indonesia had not reached a decision regarding the western Irian, but agreed that it would be discussed again in aperiod of 1 year.

In December 1950, the United Nations decided that Western Irian has the right to independence in accordance with Article 73e of the Charter of the United Nations. Because Indonesia claimed West Irian as part of the region, the Netherlands invited Indonesia to the International Court of Justice to resolve this issue, but Indonesia refused. As a continuation, on August 17, 1956 Indonesia established the province of West Irian in Soasiu as capital on the island of Tidore, the first governor, Zainal Abidin Shah who was appointed on 23 September 1956.

Indonesia began to seek assistance from foreign weapons before the conflict between Indonesia and the Netherlands. Indonesia tried to get help from the United States, but failed. Finally, in December 1960, General A.H. Nasution went to Moscow, Soviet Union, and finally mamaged to hold a weapon trade agreement with the Soviet government. Unites States did not support the submission of Western Irian to Indonesia because the Bureau of European Affairs in Washington, DC regards "replace the rule by white colonization by brown skin". But in April 1961, Robert Komer and McGeorge Bundy began to prepare a plan for the UN to give the impression that the submission to the Indonesia happen legally. Although hesitant, President John F. Kennedy eventually support this becaause the Cold War climate of the time and concern that Indonesia will ask for help to the Soviet communist if does not receive support from U.S.

Indonesia close to several countries such as India, Pakistan, Austraalia, New Zealand, thailand, United Kingdom, Germany, and France so that they do not give support to the Netherlands when war broke out between Indonesia and the Netherlands. In 1961 UN General Assembly, UN Secretary General U Thant requested Ellsworth Bunker, diplomats from the United States, to submit proposals on the settlement of the status of Western Irian. Bunker suggested that the Dutch handed over Western Irian to Indonesia throught the United Nations within period of 2 years.

Because of concerns that the communist would take advantage in these conflicts led, Unites States urges the Netherlands to negotiate with Indonesia. because this effort, the New York agreement was reached on August 15, 1962. Australian government initially supported the independence of Papua, also changed his mind and support the merger with Indonesia at the insistence of the U.S.

On 15 August 1962, negotiations between Indonesia and the Netherlands held at UN Headquaters in New York. At the talks, Indonesia was represented by Soebandrio, and the Netherlands was represented by Jan Herman van Roijen and C.W.A. Schurmann.

On May 1, 1963, UNTEA (United Nations Temporary Executive Authority) hand over the administration of Western Irian to Indonesia.

 

TECHNICAL DETAILS

STAMPS

 

Classification of Issuance

:

Commemorative

Product Code

:

131105

Issue date

:

1 May 2013

Designs and Denominations

:

1. Education for the Citizens of Papua, Rp 2.500,-

2. The Beauty of Seabed of Papua, Rp 2.500,-

3. Papua's Natural and Cultural Riches, Rp 2.500,-

 

Size

:

41.06 mm x 25.31 mm

Perforations

:

12.75 x 13.50

Sheet Composition

:

24 pcs (6 x 4)

Price per Set

:

Rp 7.500,-

Colours

:

4 separation + 1 invisible ink

Paper

:

Tullis Russel

Gum

:

PVA

Printing Process

:

Offset

Printing Quantity

:

300.000 sets

Designer

:

 The winners of Indonesia Stamp Design Contest 2012

Printer

:

Perum Peruri

 

FIRST DAY COVER (FDC)

 

Product Code

:

132105

Price

:

Rp 10.000,-

Printing Quantity

:

4.000 sets

Designer

:

Tata Sugiarta

 

Related themes :

50 Years TRIKORA 2011